Fluency and Accuracy Activities: Striking a Balance

In everyday usage, fluent is often used interchangeably with proficient, as in, He’s pretty fluent in Arabic. But in language teaching, fluency is a bit more technical and just one component of language proficiency, often discussed in tandem with accuracy: Some learners speak very fluently, but their speech may be riddled with errors. Conversely, some learners speak haltingly but with a great deal of accuracy.

Generally, accuracy is the complement to fluency, and most classroom activities focus on either accuracy or fluency. More importantly, I can tell you that before I learned about fluency activities, virtually all of the activities I was doing in class were working on accuracy.

I’m going to discuss the characteristics of accuracy and fluency activities and provide examples that you can easily try with your adult learners.

It’s worth mentioning that we can’t really focus on both accuracy and fluency at the same time. During accuracy-focused activity, it is the role of the teacher to correct students, model native-like forms, help students to notice the gap, and so on. When we’re building fluency, though, we need to shut all that off. No correcting or interrupting. Our role is to encourage and support rapid speech, to lower inhibitions and anxiety related to making mistakes.


First, order of operations: it’s a good general rule that accuracy activities come before fluency activities. And when you think about it, this is common sense. You don’t want to be building fluency with incorrect forms. First you want to get it right; then you want to speed it up.

When we talk about accuracy, we’re trying to raise our students’ awareness of form and forms, to draw their attention to the details of how we use a new vocabulary item, construct a grammatical form, pronounce a word. We model, we repeat, we give feedback.


In my experience, students (and often materials) tend to be overly focused on accuracy, paying too little attention to actively building fluency. So when we talk about maintaining a balance between fluency and accuracy, what we really mean is making sure we dedicate some time to fluency. Your mileage may vary, though, so adjust your approach accordingly.

Paul Nation (2003) suggests that the following conditions be provided for effective fluency activities:

  1. All language items involved are already familiar to students,
  2. The focus is on communication (not form) in real time, and
  3. Supports are in place for students to outperform their normal proficiency

Let’s look at an example of a fluency activity to get a better sense of what they look like. Once you know what makes a good fluency exercise, they’re really easy to develop. This one could work with intermediate (B1) students:

  1. Students spend 5–10 minutes preparing a 3-minute spoken description of their dream house. They may make notes but should not be reading from a script.
  2. Place students in pairs and have them exchange descriptions.
  3. Now shuffle the partners, and ask students to deliver the same description, but in 2.5 minutes.
  4. Shuffle again, and give them 2 minutes.

In an exercise like this, students get the chance to work out the meaning and language the first time through. In the subsequent recitations, they will be more confident with their words, and under greater time constraints. Thus, we meet all of Nation’s conditions.

Other activities that build fluency in other skills could be freewriting, extensive reading, and authentic listening (without subtitles).

Personally, when it comes to grammar and vocabulary, I try to set a trajectory not only from accuracy to fluency, but also from written to spoken production. Writing is a deliberate, recursive process. It gives students time to carefully consider the new form, work from models, work out the details, catch their own mistakes, and get visual feedback from teachers. Then, we move on to spoken exercises, where the pressure is on a little, and things need to occur in real time.


Nation, P. (2003). Materials for teaching vocabulary. In B. Tomlinson (Ed.), Developing materials for language teaching (pp. 394–405). London, England: Continuum.


About Robert Sheppard

Robert Sheppard
Over the past 10 years, Rob has explored a variety of roles and contexts in the field. These include the cram-school culture of Taiwan and Korea; IEPs in Boston focused on academic English; advanced conversation and TOEFL prep taught via Skype to students in Japan; and nonprofit, community English programs for immigrants to Greater Boston. He currently serves as sr. director of adult programs at Quincy Asian Resources, a member of the community advisory council at First Literacy, and a curriculum consultant at Boston Global Institute. He has a master’s degree in TESOL from The New School, and his areas of interest include adult ed, pronunciation and grammar instruction, curriculum development, and assessment.
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8 Responses to Fluency and Accuracy Activities: Striking a Balance

  1. Ayalew Tefera says:

    Thank you very much indeed .

  2. Margaret Hinze says:

    Thank you. Unfortunately I am still not sure which speaking exercises would improve accuracy.
    I understand drilling. But what type of excersises would one use.

    Thank you
    Margaret Hinze

  3. flory MANDINA says:

    We learn a language for communication, so I think that if a student is fluent but not accurate, it is still important to check whether the mistakes or errors can not block communication; otherwise we need to correct any mistake that can be an obstacle to communication. I just want to stress out that being fluent without being accurate is not the issue we should focus on if communication is taking place effectively.

  4. Kitty Barrera says:

    Very important post! I’m glad to see it since I have been saying the same thing to some of my colleagues for several years. A few have been surprised that my students make great progress in writing during the term even though I don’t spend hours marking errors. Some of the students are skeptical, too, but they are always pleased with their progress in the end.

  5. Chad Langford says:

    This simple post has just officially become required reading for the teachers I supervise, teachers who, predictably, can be a little obsessed with accuracy and forget too often about fluency. (They still do a pretty good job anyway!) Thanks for this, R. Sheppard.

  6. Eric Roth says:

    Thank you for the gentle reminder to balance accuracy with fluency, especially with adult education English language learners. Too often, we unintentionally build barriers to students speaking English inside and outside our classrooms by placing so much emphasis on accuracy that students feel incapable and uncomfortable. In contrast, we can boost both student competency and confidence by creating authentic, positive conversations in our classrooms in English. Your example of describing a dream home works on multiple levels. Students know some crucial vocabulary, and may learn more, while sharing their personal dreams and experiences. The speaking activity is also interesting – and with some advanced notice – students can bring their own pictures and materials to class too. Finally, this classroom conversation can easily prepare students to hold other, real English conversations on the topic outside of class.

    • Robert Sheppard Robert Sheppard says:

      Thanks so much, Eric! I agree: in terms of preparation for the world outside the classroom, fluency is sometimes even more important than accuracy.

      • Marioca says:

        Great, thanks for the article and all the comments give a great picture of this topic is not a isolated issue to my enviroment, or even my city or country.

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